Giovanni Allevi stated on social media that he suffers from Bone marrowIt is a particularly malignant disease. It can present with many symptoms and signs, so much so that it can sometimes begin with bone fracture pain or severe back pain. Therefore, unexplained fractures, kidney problems and infection appear in some people. In short, it is difficult to draw an accurate identity of the myeloma.
However, we know that this blood cancer It affects the plasma cells and white blood cells in the bone marrow that help fight infections. When plasma cells escape the body’s control and multiply too quickly they can lead to myeloma, and through the buildup can create true lesions. Health problems caused by multiple myeloma can include the bones, immune system, kidneys and blood cells. there treatment or treatment It should always be studied on a case-by-case basis, with the potential to intervene at different levels of pathology severity with specific treatments, remember the AIL experts at the site of the same name.
What happens in the blood cells?
Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer that originates in the bone marrow, the “production center” of blood cells. In particular, in this case, a single progenitor cell of ours immune systema white blood cell called a B lymphocyte, undergoes agenetic change and gain Tumor characteristics Which will travel to all the cells it descends from, called plasma cells. These usually represent no more than 1% of the total units present in the bone marrow. To understand when and how one can suspect one Pathology Of this kind, it is necessary to try to “envision” what is happening in terms of Blood tests The increase in plasma cells is visualized in the tests.
One can take for example the “horns” of cattle located on the sides of the head. In fact, this particular picture can be repeated even when diagnosing myeloma: an increase in plasma cells is almost always responsible for the presence of a high amount of immunoglobulins or its fragments in the blood and / or urine. Unfortunately, these immunoglobulins are characterized by the presence of a true ‘peak’ in a specific region, resulting in a classic appearance with a ‘specific’ increase in the immunoglobulin defined as a monoclonal component.
Clearly, the monoclonal peak in the protein trace does not automatically translate into the presence of myeloma. This should always be remembered and that is why the doctor should be the one to judge the situation and possibly suggest specific exams Because in many cases, fortunately, the increase in the monoclonal component in the blood remains low. However, in multiple myeloma, the majority of myeloid elements usually consist of neoplastic plasma cells. there An abundance of cancerous plasma cells In the bone marrow, the production of proteins that inhibit the development of other normal marrow elements, such as white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets (cell-like molecules involved in the body’s blood clotting process), increases. In addition to producing large amounts of monoclonal antibodies, Production of natural defensive antibodies remarkably drop.
How many people does it affect
Multiple myeloma is a blood malignancy in which plasma cells multiply uncontrollably and accumulate in the bone marrow, or, rarely, in tissues outside the bone marrow. It is a tumor responsible for 1-2% of all tumors and 10-15% of leukemias. According to the 2020 edition of “Cancer Figures in Italy” published in 2020 by the Association of Italian Cancer Registries (AIRTUM) in collaboration with the Italian Society of Medical Oncology (AIOM) and others, it is reported that in our country there are approximately 5700 new cases from multiple cases. Estimated cases of myeloma each year, with 3,019 cases occurring in men and 2,740 in women. As mentioned, the Clinical picture It can vary greatly from person to person.
There are patients with multiple myeloma completely No visible symptomsEspecially in the early stages of the disease. But most people who get the disease develop signs and symptoms that make them suspicious. First, the massive proliferation of plasma cells leads to a decrease in the normal immune function and, accordingly, a decrease in immunoglobulin levels and an increase in infection risk.
There are often pictures related to insufficient activity of the bone marrow, and the consequent anemia, which is responsible for this exhaustionAnd the weaknessAnd the breathing difficultiesand/or, in rare cases, a decrease in white blood cells (leukopenia) or platelets (thrombocytopenia), resulting in less resistance to infection and easy bleedingEven after minor cuts. The bony lesions characteristic of multiple myeloma can also cause pain, which is a very common symptom. It is mainly concentrated in the back, hip and side, and can lead to increased osteoporosis. Finally, theIncreased calcium in the blood It can help with symptoms affecting the nervous system and kidneys.